What type of pain medication do you typically rely on? Submit Your Comment
Medically reviewed by John A. Daller, MD; American Board of Surgery with subspecialty certification in surgical critical care
Brooks PM, Day RO. "Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs--Differences and Similarities." N Engl J Med. Jun 13 1991;324(24):1716-25. [Medline].
Bukata, WR. "Analgesia and Analgesics 1999, Parts I-II." Emerg Med Abstr. 1999;23.
Bukata, WR. "Cox-1-Sparing NSAIDS--Much Ado About Not Much." Emerg Med Abstr. 2000;24.
FDA.gov. "Xanodyne Agrees to Withdraw Propoxyphene From the U.S. Market." Nov 19, 2010.
Geba, GP, Weaver AL, Polis AB, et al. "Efficacy of Rofecoxib, Celecoxib, and Acetaminophen in Osteoarthritis of the Knee: a Randomized Trial." JAMA. Jan 2 2002;287(1):64-71. [Medline].
Griffin, MR, Piper JM, Daugherty JR, et al. "Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug use and Increased Risk for Peptic Ulcer Disease in Elderly Persons." Ann Intern Med. Feb 15 1991;114(4):257-63. [Medline].
Liebelt E, Levick N. "Acute Pain Management, Analgesia and Anxiolysis in the Adult Patient." In: Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide. 4th ed. 2000.
Moore PA, Crout RJ, Jackson DL, et al. "Tramadol Hydrochloride: Analgesic Efficacy Compared With Codeine, Aspirin With Codeine, and Placebo After Dental Extraction." J Clin Pharmacol. Jun 1998;38(6):554-60. [Medline].
Mukherjee D, Nissen SE, Topol EJ. "Risk of Cardiovascular Events Associated With Selective COX-2 Inhibitors. JAMA. Aug 22-29 2001;286(8):954-9. [Medline].
Stubhaug A, Grimstad J, Breivik H. "Lack of Analgesic Effect of 50 and 100 mg Oral Tramadol After Orthopaedic Surgery: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo and Standard Active Drug Comparison." Pain. Jul 1995;62(1):111-8. [Medline].
Turturro MA, Paris PM, Larkin GL. "Tramadol Versus Hydrocodone-Acetaminophen in Acute Musculoskeletal Pain: A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial." Ann Emerg Med. Aug 1998;32(2):139-43. [Medline].
Turturro MA, Paris PM, Yealy DM, Menegazzi JJ. "Hydrocodone Versus Codeine in Acute Musculoskeletal Pain." Ann Emerg Med. Oct 1991;20(10):1100-3. [Medline].
Previous contributing authors and editors: Author: John A Michael, MD, FRCPC, FAAEM, Consulting Staff, Department of Emergency Medicine, Northshore Medical Center. Editors: Scott H Plantz, MD, FAAEM, Research Director, Assistant Professor, Department of Emergency Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine; Francisco Talavera, PharmD, PhD, Senior Pharmacy Editor, eMedicine; James Quinn, MD, Director of Research Department of Medicine, Division of Emergency Medicine University of California at San Francisco Medical Center.